With the Name of the Gracious and Compassionate
Creator of the Heavens and the Earth

by Lester Allyson Knibbs, Ph.D.
(formerly Hakeem Muhammad)


Ali, Abdullah Yusuf, trans.  The Meaning of the Glorious Qur’an, Text, Translation and Commentary.  Cairo: Dar al-Kitab al-Masri, n.d.

Bernal, Martin. 
Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization.  London: Free Association Books, 1987.

Bucaille, Maurice. 
The Bible, the Qur’an and Science.  Indianapolis: North American Trust Publications, 1978.

Catholic Encyclopedia.  Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America, 1967.  S.v. “Wyclif, John,” by J. Dahmus.

Davidson, Basil (with F.K. Buah and the advice of J.F. Ade Ajayi). 
A History of West Africa to the Nineteenth Century.  Doubleday & Company, 1966.

Denffer, Ahmad von. 
`Ulum al-Qur’an: An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur’an.  Leicester: The Islamic Foundation, 1983.

Farmer, Henry George. 
Historical Facts for the Arabian Musical Influence.  New York: Arno Press, 1978.

Gulick, Robert L. 
Muhammad the Educator.  Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture, 1961.

Haykal, Muhammad Husayn. 
The Life of Muhammad.  Transalated from the 8th ed. by Isma`il Ragi A. al Faruqi.  North American Trust Publications, 1976.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. 
Science and Civilization in Islam.  New American Library, 1968.

Watt, W. Montgomery. 
The Influence of Islam on Medieval Europe.  Edinburgh University Press, 1972.
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